• Endoscopic Examination of Ear, Nose, Throat, Vocal Cords

  • A speciality dealing with orifices and “tube-like” entrances into the deepest parts of the ear, nasal cavities and throat must be assessed with an endoscope. As the name endoscope suggests, the interior of the organ can be seen in utmost details with illumination, magnification, allowing for minor procedures and having a facility of digitally recording the images by video endoscopy.

    Endoscopic examination of Ear, Nose, Throat & Voice apparatus

    Equipment :

    An Endoscope is an optical instrument with bundles of optical fibers that transmit light from a source outside the body so that one end can enter passages and cavities inside the body for visualization of these structures in utmost detail. The advantage is that the intensity of light at the source is transmitted almost with no loss of intensity to the end of the cable into the interior of the organ. This allows detailed visualization and also video photo recording at the tip at absolutely close quarters.

    The heat of the light source is not conducted and therefore the light source is referred to as a cold light fountain. Certain instruments also carry extra tubes for suction and tubes to guide instruments for biopsy of pathologies deep in. Also it replaces rigid tube endoscopes of the past.. Flexible cables can see around bends and corners. Flexible endoscopes are also used when required.

    Endoscopes for visualization of the Ear, Nose & Throat passages

    Light source – cold light “fountain” supplying illumination through light fibers from source to the end of the cable

    Endoscope with cold light switched on.

    Recordings are stored in discs for study later,

    comparisons over a period of time, second opinions etc.

    t source – cold light “fountain” supplying illumination through

    light fibers from source to the end of the cable  

    Fiberoptic Video Oto Endoscopy – Visualisation of the External ear, Ear drum, and Middle ear

    Endoscopic view of Normal Ear drum, and Middle ear


    Fiberoptic Video Nasal and NasoPharyngeal Endoscopy – Visualisation of the Nose, Sinus openings and Nasopharynx & openings of Eustachian tubes

    Endoscopic view of  Normal Nose, Naso pharynx and Eustachian tube orifices


     

    Chart for Recording observations of Nose and Nasopharyngoscopy

    Chart for Recording observations of Nose and Nasopharyngoscopy

    First Pass

    Right Left
    Inferior Meatus                            Floor of Nose              Naso-lachrimal duct opening
    Nasopharynx : Post Nasal Space    Fossa of Rosenmuller     Eustachian tube orifice

    Second Pass

    Lateral wall of Nose     Agger nasi    Uncinate process    Accessory ostia    Polyps
    Middle meatus  -  Hiatus semilunaris,    Bulla,     Natural ostium,    Ground lamella
    Middle turbinate – Hypertrophy;      Deformity;    Paradoxical;     Concha bullosa?

    Third Pass

    Superior turbinate / Meatus
    Sphenoethmoidal recess
    Sphenoidal Ostium

    Fiberoptic Video Laryngo Pharyngoscopy – Visualisation of the throat and vocal cords

    Fiberoptic Video Laryngo Pharyngoscopy –  Visualisation of the throat and vocal cords

    Endoscopic view of  Normal Larynx, Laryngo pharynx and Vocal folds