Ocular causes

A number of ocular conditions can give rise to the sensation of vertigo.

  • Oscillopsia: This is an illusion of back & forth movement of the environment. This is due either to a loss of VOR or a hyperactive VOR.
  • Opsoclonus: This is a horizontal & / or vertical oscillation of the eyes, seen in cerebellar & / or brainstem disorders.
  • Ocular Nystagmus: These are equal pendular excursions of the eyes because of abnormal visual fixation & / or loss of central vision.
  • Ocular vertigo : This is a mild sensation of vertigo, which has to be differentiated from the above mentioned causes. Ocular vertigo can be caused by the following:
  • Abnormal dioptric apparatus causing a distortion of images.
  • Extra-ocular muscle weakness causing diplopia in gaze towards the paretic muscle.
  • Optokinetic nystagmus.
  • Looking down from heights, thus causing an abolition of the vanishing point, in addition to other psychic factors.
  • Effect of sudden acceleration of the body, causing conflicting sensory input from 2 or more organs of equilibrium.