Causes of Vertigo / Giddiness / Dysequilibrium / Dizziness

Neuro-otological causes of vertigo/dizziness/imbalance

Internal ear diseases

Those affecting the hearing & balance organs and/or connections with brain (Hearing function affected)

Meniere’s disease
Septic and toxic labyrinthitis
Tumour of the 8th cranial nerve
Other Cerebello pontine angle lesions
Audio Vestibular ischemia
Cochlear otosclerosis
Ramsay Hunt Syndrome
Fistula of the labyrinth
Paget’s Disease



Those affecting the balance organ only and/or connections with brain (Hearing function normal)

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (B.P.P.V)
Vestibular neuritis
Disseminated sclerosis
Chronic alcoholism – Peripheral Neuropathy




Central nervous system disorders

Cerebrovascular disease due to atherosclerosis

Vertebro-Basilar Artery Disease

Lateral Medullary syndrome (Wallenburg’s syndrome)

Pontine and Cerebellar haemorrhages

Multiple Sclerosis

Tumours and infections of Brain (Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Brain stem) & Meninges

Epilepsy – Vertigo may be an aura

Common of Causes of Vertigo

20 % cases – Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (B.P.P.V.)

15 % cases – Vestibular Neuritis. Central –Vestibular vertigo

10 % cases – Meniere’s disease. Vestibular Migraine Phobic Postural vertigo

5 % cases – Bilateral vestibulopathy Vestibular paroxysma Psychogenic vertigo


Cervical Vertigo


Pathophysiology And Diagnosis

CVNCS (Cochleo Vestibular Nerve Compressions Syndrome)

SSCDS (Superior Semi Circular Dehiscence Syndrome )

BTM (Basilar Type Migraine)

Drop attacks and frequent falls

Management of the Dizzy Elderly Patient

Ocular causes